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Karachay-Cherkessia

From Academic Kids

The Republic of Karachay-Cherkessia (Russian: Карача́ево-Черке́сская респу́блика, or, less formal, Карача́ево-Черке́ссия) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). The direct transliteration of the republic's name is Karachayevo-Cherkesskaya Respublika or Karachayevo-Cherkessiya.

Template:Federal subject of Russia

Contents

Geography

Time zone

Karachay-Cherkessia is located in the Moscow Time Zone (MSK/MSD). UTC offset is +0300 (MSK)/+0400 (MSD).

Rivers

There are 172 rivers on the territory of the republic. Major rivers include:

Lakes

There are approximately 130 lakes in the republic.

Mountains

The landscape of the republic is mostly mountainous (~80% of the territory). Mount Elbrus, the highest mountain in Europe, is situated on the border with the Kabardino-Balkar Republic.

Natural Resources

Karachay-Cherkessia's natural resources include gold, coal, clays and more.

Climate

  • Average January temperature: -3.2°C
  • Average July temperature: +20.6°C
  • Average annual precipitation: 550 mm (plains) to 2,500 (mountains)

Administrative division

Main article: Administrative division of Karachay-Cherkessia

Demographics

The main ethnic groups of the republic, apart from a sizeable Russian population (33.6%), are the Turkic Karachay (38.5%), Circassians (11.3%), who speak a Caucasian language, and Abazins.

  • Population: 439,470 (2002)
    • Urban: 193,531 (44.0%)
    • Rural: 245,939 (56.0%)
    • Male: 205,481 (46.8%)
    • Female: 233,989 (53.2%)
  • Females per 1000 males: 1,139
  • Average age: 33.2 years
    • Urban: 33.4 years
    • Rural: 33.1 years
    • Male: 31.0 years
    • Female: 35.2 years
  • Number of households: 127,488 (with 437,338 people)
    • Urban: 62,858 (with 192,642people)
    • Rural: 65,130 (with 244,696 people)

History

Missing image
Caucasus01.jpg
map of Karachay-Cherkessia

The Autonomous Oblast of Karachay-Cherkessia was created on January 12, 1922. It was split into Karachay Autonomous Oblast and Cherkess National District on April 26, 1926. Cherkess National District was elevated to an autonomous oblast status on April 30, 1928. In 1943, Karachay Autonomous Oblast was abolished and the Karachay population was deported to Siberia because of their alleged collaboration with the Nazis. The Autonomous Oblast of Karachay-Cherkessia was re-established in January of 1957. It became the Soviet Socialist Republic of Karachay-Cherkessia (under the jurisdiction of the RSFSR) on July 3, 1991. It was renamed the Republic of Karachay-Cherkessia in December 1992.

Politics

The head of government in Karachay-Cherkessia is the President. As of 2004, the president is Mustafa Azret-Aliyevich Batdyyev.

Ethnic tension is a considerable problem in the republic. In May of 1999 Karachay-Cherkessia conducted its first ever free regional presidential election. When Vladimir Semyonov, a Karachay, won the election over Stanislav Derev, a Circassian, there were protests by supporters of Derev, with widespread allegations of fraud. A court ruling later upheld the election result, prompting thousands of Derev's supporters to march in protest, many advocating partition of the republic.

A car-bomb that killed two people in March 2001 was blamed on Chechen seperatists.

Economy

Industry is mostly concentrated in the capital of the republic, Cherkessk. Chemical and food industries are the most developed.


External links

Template:Russian federal subjectsde:Karatschai-Tscherkessien et:Karatšai-Tšerkessi Vabariik eo:Karaĉajio-Ĉerkesio nl:Karatsjai-Tsjerkessi ja:カラチャイ・チェルケス共和国 no:Karatsjajevo-Tsjerkessia ru:Карачаево-Черкесия fi:Karatai-Terkessia

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