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Adygea

From Academic Kids

The Republic of Adygea (Russian: Респу́блика Адыге́я; Adyghe: Адыгэ Республик) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic) enclaved within Krasnodar Krai. The direct transliteration of the republic's name is Respublika Adygeya. Other ways of transliterating the republic's name include Adygea and Adyghea. Template:Federal subject of Russia

Contents

Geography

Adygea is situated on the foothills of the Caucasus Mountains, with plains in the north, and mountains in the south. Forests cover almost 40% of the territory of the republic.

Time zone

Adygeya is located in the Moscow Time Zone (MSK/MSD). UTC offset is +0300 (MSK)/+0400 (MSD).

Rivers

Kuban River (870 km) is one of the major rivers in the Caucasus region, and it is navigable. It forms part of the northern border between Adygea and Krasnodar Krai. Other rivers include:

Lakes

There are no large lakes in the republic. There are several reservoirs, that include:

Mountains

The republic's major mountains range in height from 2,000 to 3,238 m and include:

Natural resources

The republic is rich in oil and natural gas. Other natural resources include gold, silver, tungsten, iron and more.

Climate

  • Average January temperature: -2°C
  • Average July temperature: +22°C
  • Average annual precipitation: 700 mm

Administrative division

Main article: Administrative division of Adygeya

Demographics

Of the republics 447,109 inhabitants, 66% are Russians, while Adyghe (or Adygeans) constitute only 23%.

  • Population: 447,109 (2002)
    • Urban: 234,900 (52.5%)
    • Rural: 212,209 (47.5%)
    • Male: 208,019 (46.5%)
    • Female: 239,090 (53.5%)
  • Females per 1000 males: 1,149
  • Average age: 37 years
    • Urban: 36.6 years
    • Rural: 37.4 years
    • Male: 34 years
    • Female: 39.6 years
  • Number of households: 151,597 (with 440,449 people)
    • Urban: 82,949 (with 230,286 people)
    • Rural: 68,648 (with 210,163 people)

History

The Adyghe people were the ancient dwellers of the North-West Caucasus, sometimes known as Circassians since the 13th century.

Adygea was established as an autonomous oblast within the Soviet Union on August 24, 1922. At that time, Krasnodar was the administrative center. On August 13, 1928, Autonomous Oblast of Adygeya was transferred under the jurisdiction of Krasnodar Krai.

Maykop became the administrative center in 1936 when the borders of the oblast were changed. On July 3, 1991, the oblast was elevated to the status of a republic under the jurisdiction of the Russian Federation.

The first president of Adygea was Aslan Aliyevich Dzharimov, elected in January of 1992.

Adyghabze (Adyghe language) is a member of West North-Caucasian group of Caucasian languages. Along with the Russian language, the Adyghe language is the state language of Adygea.

Proficiency in Adyghabze is a prerequisite for a presidency candidate.

Politics

The head of government in Adygea is the President, who is elected for a five-year term. As of 2005, the President is Hazret Medzhidovich Sovmen, who was elected on January 13, 2002, succeeding Aslan Dzharimov. There is also a directly elected National Assembly (Khase), which comprises the Council of Representatives and the Council of the Republic. Both Councils are elected every five years and have 27 deputies each.

The Prime Minister of Adygea is appointed by the President with the consent of the National Assembly. As of 2005, the Prime Minister of Adygea is Hazret Yunusovich Huade.

The republic sends three representatives to the parliament of the Russian Federation; one to the Duma and the other two to the Federation Council.

The republic's Constitution was adopted on May 14, 1995.

Economy

Even though it is now one of the poorest parts of Russia, the republic has abundant forests and rich soil. The region is famous for producing grain, sunflowers, tea, tobacco, and other produce. Hog- and sheep-breeding are also developed.

Food, timber, woodworking, pulp and paper, heavy engineering, and metal-working industries are the most developed ones.

Transportation

There is a small airport in Maykop (ICAO airport code URKM), and several rail lines pass through the republic.

Culture

There are 8 state and 23 public museums in the republic. The largest museum is the National Museum of the Republic of Adygea, located in Maykop.

Education

Adyghe State University and Maykop State Technological Institute, both located in the capital Maykop, are the two major higher education facilities in Adygea.

Related articles

External links

Template:Russian federal subjectscs:Adygejsko da:Adygejien de:Adygeja eo:Adigeio es:Adiguesia et:Adgee Vabariik it:Adighezia ja:アディゲ共和国 nl:Adygea pl:Adygeja ru:Адыгея

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